1. With what question does Nietzsche begin this chapter? How does this opening question represent an essentially different orientation towards ethics than any we've yet seen in class?
2. Nietzsche begins by arguing that historians of morality think in an unhistorical fashion. What account of morality does he attribute to these philosophers? Why is it unhistoric?
3. What alternative source of "good" does Nietzsche suggest? Does "good" on this view have any connection to altruistic action, according to him? If not, where does the idea of altruistic action come from?
4. What does Nietzsche claim "pointed him in the right direction" in terms of the meaning of "good"? What fundamental insight does he claim resulted from his looking there?
5. How does Nietzsche describe the difference between the morality of the "priests" and that of the "knightly aristocracy"? Explain the idea of the transvaluation of values that emerges from these chapters.
6. What question does Nietzsche think has to be "examined from the most varied perspectives"? What reasoning do you think is lying behind the last sentence of the First Essay?