Review Questions For 5.2

1. Section 5.2 takes up a description of the Nyaya theory of knowledge (epistemology). Your author begins by distinguishing dispositional from episodic knowledge. Explain the difference between these two. With which type of knowledge is Nyaya concerned? What other differences does your author cite between Western and Indian ways of looking at knowledge?

2. The first of the four “means of knowledge” that comprise the basics of Nyaya epistemology is perception. Summarize your author’s account of perception. Include in your summary an account of how perceptions can fail to produce knowledge, and an explanation of the difference between conceptual and non-conceptual perception.

3. For what reasons, according to your author, do Nyayikas hold that universals are something that we perceive? How, in particular, does it help them sort out knowledge of causation?

4. What is the difference between inference and perception for Nyayikas? List the five terms of an inference, according to Nyaya. Give your own example of an inference that captures these terms, and that follows the same pattern as the example your author gives of inferring the existence of fire from a perception of smoke.

5. Pervasion is a key concept in Nyaya epistemology. Summarize your author’s account of pervasion.

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