PHL 276 01 Summer 2012 Test One

GUIDELINES:

1. This test will be held in class at the start of class on 17 July 2012. The test period will be from 8:30 AM to 12:00 PM. No late or make-tests will be scheduled. There will be no exceptions. There just isn't time for them in a six-week class. We will continue with material after the test is over, so expect to spend the full class time.

2. The blue book you provided will be returned to you with appropriate identification. You may use a pencil or blue or black pen to complete the test. No notes, books, handouts, dictionaries, electronic devices, or any other materials of any kind may be used.

3. Do not write your name anywhere on your test. Please also “double-space” your answers, and write only on the front of the pages. (Don’t worry—you will have plenty of space.)

4. Your test answers should be your own work. Any detectable collaboration will be considered cheating. So will absences from the test longer than five minutes. Cheating will not be tolerated. In keeping with Marygrove College’s academic honesty policy, sanctions up to and including automatic failure of the course may be applied in cases of cheating.

5. This is NOT a research assignment. You are NOT to use outside sources. Usage of verbatim quotations from the textbook and paraphrasing of the textbook are to be used sparingly and kept under three lines per occurrence. If you must use quotations, know that all verbatim quotations must be enclosed in quotation marks. All such quotations, and any paraphrasing of material from the text, must be followed by an appropriate citation. The following simplified format may be used: ([author’s name], [page number from which the text is taken]). The following is an example of the minimally acceptable citation format:

For a verbatim quotation: “Of all the things which wisdom acquires to produce the blessedness of the complete life, far the greatest is the possession of friendship.” (Cahn & Markie, p. 183)

For paraphrasing: Epictetus says that friendship is the most important thing for a blessed life. (Cahn & Markie p. 183)

Failure to cite quoted or paraphrased works properly is plagiarism—the misrepresentation of other’s work as one’s own. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. In keeping with Marygrove College’s academic honesty policy, the first instance of plagiarism will merit a grade of “0” on the test and the notification of the student’s advisor. Repeated offenses will be met with more serious sanctions. Lecture material does not need to be followed by a citation.

6. Be sure that you address all parts of the question. Be efficient, clear, and thorough in your writing. Keep in mind that this is a test of your understanding of the material, not a solicitation of a manifesto of your own personal philosophy. Stay focused on simply and directly answering the questions.

7. Your answers should be substantive and your points should be supported with evidence (from the text), lecture material and independent argument. All technical philosophical terms (e.g. ‘psychological continuity’, ‘substance’, etc.) should be defined. Charts, graphs, and drawings should not be used. Your answer must be correct and clear. It need not be rhetorically pleasing. That said, basic issues such as grammar, spelling, and structure will all count towards your grade. Clear writing and clear thinking go hand in hand.

8. If you have any questions feel free to e-mail me at any time. I do not give provisional grades to test answers but I will answer questions about the test insofar as I can without conferring an unfair advantage on anyone.


TEST QUESTIONS & FORMAT:

On the day of the exam the instructor will return your blue book to you with your student number on the outside cover. One of the questions below will be assigned to you using a random method. Not even the instructor will know which of the questions you will answer before the day of the test. You will be responsible for answering ONLY the question assigned to you. Do NOT answer the others. No extra credit of any kind will be given.

Below are the questions. These questions will not be altered in any way prior to the exam. They will occur exactly as they are written here. READ EACH QUESTION VERY CAREFULLY and break it into its composite parts before attempting to answer.


1. Pam and her husband Darell are a young couple who cannot conceive. That said, they have always wanted a child. Thus they are considering adopting a child. Their finances are stable and their families support the idea completely. Using the framework for judgment given in the second reading, explain in detail the kinds of considerations that they should take into account as they decide whether or not to go through with the adoption. Stick to the criteria and be as specific as you can in your answer.


2. Explain in detail the difference between vagueness, ambiguity, and expressions that simply need to be clarified if they are to be made more understandable. Give an example of each that illustrates your explanation and demonstrate how, in each case, the problem could be corrected to achieve more successful communication using the word or expression in your illustration.


3. Suppose Art, a middle-manager at a software company is having a quarrel with his lawyer, Bob. At one point Art says "I'm going to have you disbarred!" Bob isn't worried because he knows that Art's speech act in this case fails. Using the conditions for a successful speech act, explain in detail the reasons why Art's speech act fails.


4. Read the following dialogue carefully, and answer all the questions that follow. Support your answers thoroughly.

Jake and Elwood are sitting in a garage waiting room watching television, when a news story concerning Al Gore begins.

1 Jake That guy…
2 Elwood Who, Al Gore?
3 Jake Yep. I can't believe people take him seriously.
4 Elwood What, about the global warming?
5 Jake Right. There's no way they can prove that the earth is heating up. It doesn't even make any sense.
6 Elwood Hm. Well, you know that's not really what they say is happening in the first place.
7 Jake Yeah it is. Gore made that movie about it.
8 Elwood Oh, he made a movie alright. It was a bit over the top but there was a grain of truth to it. The problem is climate change, not global warming.
9 Jake Same difference.
10 Elwood Not really, actually. Climate change is the idea that the earth is going through a period of more extreme temperatures, both the highs and the lows, not the theory that the earth is just getting hotter.
11 Jake That doesn't sound any more likely than global warming to me.
12 Elwood Lots of people would say that, but the trends scientists are seeing in the weather does support the idea that we are having more intense swings in temperature.
13 Jake That's liberal BS. You mean to tell me we should all start riding bikes everywhere, sweat to death in the summer without A/C, and eat granola like a bunch of hippie moonbats just because Al Gore thinks it's getting hotter? Please. Nobody understands what makes the weather happen.
14 Elwood You're not hearing what I'm saying. All I said was that there is some reason to think that the climate really is changing. I don't know where you're getting all this other stuff.
15 Jake Yeah whatever…

(a) Are any of the Grice's rules violated here? If so, how, by whom, and at what line? Explain any violation you find as completely as you can.

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