Phl 276 01 Fall 2011 Test Two


1. This test will be held in class at the start of class on Monday, 12 December, 2011. The test period will be from 1:30 to 2:45 PM. No late or make-tests will be scheduled. There will be no exceptions. There just isn't time for them.

2. The blue book you provided will be returned to you with appropriate identification. You may use a pencil or blue or black pen to complete the test. No notes, books, handouts, dictionaries, electronic devices, or any other materials of any kind may be used.

3. Do not write your name anywhere on your test. Please also “double-space” your answers, and write only on the front of the pages. (Don’t worry—you will have plenty of space.)

4. Your test answers should be your own work. Any detectable collaboration will be considered cheating. So will absences from the test longer than five minutes. Cheating will not be tolerated. In keeping with Marygrove College’s academic honesty policy, sanctions up to and including automatic failure of the course may be applied in cases of cheating.

5. This is NOT a research assignment. You are NOT to use outside sources. Usage of verbatim quotations from the textbook and paraphrasing of the textbook are to be used sparingly and kept under three lines per occurrence. If you must use quotations, know that all verbatim quotations must be enclosed in quotation marks. All such quotations, and any paraphrasing of material from the text, must be followed by an appropriate citation. The following simplified format may be used: ([author’s name], [page number from which the text is taken]). The following is an example of the minimally acceptable citation format:

For a verbatim quotation: “Of all the things which wisdom acquires to produce the blessedness of the complete life, far the greatest is the possession of friendship.” (Cahn & Markie, p. 183)

For paraphrasing: Epictetus says that friendship is the most important thing for a blessed life. (Cahn & Markie p. 183)

Failure to cite quoted or paraphrased works properly is plagiarism—the misrepresentation of other’s work as one’s own. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. In keeping with Marygrove College’s academic honesty policy, the first instance of plagiarism will merit a grade of “0” on the test and the notification of the student’s advisor. Repeated offenses will be met with more serious sanctions. Lecture material does not need to be followed by a citation.

6. Be sure that you address all parts of the question. Be efficient, clear, and thorough in your writing. Keep in mind that this is a test of your understanding of the material, not a solicitation of a manifesto of your own personal philosophy. Stay focused on simply and directly answering the questions.

7. Your answers should be substantive and your points should be supported with evidence (from the text), lecture material and independent argument. All technical philosophical terms (e.g. ‘psychological continuity’, ‘substance’, etc.) should be defined. Charts, graphs, and drawings should not be used. Your answer must be correct and clear. It need not be rhetorically pleasing. That said, basic issues such as grammar, spelling, and structure will all count towards your grade. Clear writing and clear thinking go hand in hand.

8. If you have any questions feel free to e-mail me at any time. I do not give provisional grades to test answers but I will answer questions about the test insofar as I can without conferring an unfair advantage on anyone.


On the day of the exam the instructor will return your blue book to you with your student number on the outside cover. One of the questions below will be assigned to you using a random method. Not even the instructor will know which of the questions you will answer before the day of the test. You will be responsible for answering ONLY the question assigned to you. Do NOT answer the others. No extra credit of any kind will be given.

Below are the questions. These questions will not be altered in any way prior to the exam. They will occur exactly as they are written here. READ EACH ITEM VERY CAREFULLY.


Each of the following items is a dialogue containing at least one argument. For the one you get on the test, do all of the following:

1) Identify the argument.
2) Put the argument in standard form.
3) Diagram the argument.
4) Evaluate the argument as best you can.
5) Support your evaluation with sound reasoning based on what you have learned in this class.

Elwood and Jake are continuing their discussion about climate change (from test one) online via a chat client. (That's how Elwood can include the links.)

1 Jake I'm still not convinced about the global warming thing.
2 Elwood Okay, but first: It's not global warming, it's climate change, okay? Warming is only part of the story
3 Jake Alright then, climate change. What's the difference anyway?
4 Elwood The difference is that several leading scientific organizations that study climate conditions, including the American Meterological Society, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Geophysical Union endorse the idea that the global climate is changing, and that human activity is a causal factor—not the cause, now, but a factor. These are all well-respected organizations with impeccable scientific credentials. That's why I think you can't just dismiss what they have to say about climate change.

Huey and Riley are relaxing at home. Riley has been listening to headphones all afternoon and puts them down. The two of them meet in the kitchen, where the following conversation takes place.

1 Huey Whatcha listenin' to?
2 Riley This Lil' Wayne joint. It's off the chain!
3 Huey I'm sorry I asked.
4 Riley What? Come on! Lil' Wayne invented hip hop man!
5 Huey In point of fact, that's not true. Hip hop as a music form is two things: MC'ing, and DJ'ing. MC'ing evolved from a number of sources. It comes from the "toasting and boasting" of Jamaican dance hall and dub DJs in the sixties and seventies, the "talking blues" made popular in the Great Depression by socially conscious artists like Woody Guthrie and even before that the Griot and other story-telling traditions of West Africa. DJ's are the musical side of hip hop. Musically speaking the hip hop we listen to now evolved out of local DJ's in the Bronx, New York, like Grandmaster Flash, Africa Bambatta and DJ Kool Herc looping the best parts of disco records— the instrumental break— so that people could dance to it longer. The instrumental and rhythmic sensibilities involved in what they did reach back to jazz, gospel spirituals, and even African drumming. MC'ing and DJ'ing: Put those things together and you get hip hop. The Sugar Hill Gang were the first to do it with any commercial success with Rapper's Delight in 1979. Lil' Wayne wasn't even born yet then. Ergo, he could not have invented hip hop.
6 Riley Man all those dudes are dead. It's all about Lil' Wayne now, son. WEE-ZY!!!
7 Huey Never mind.

Jack and Diane are college students. They are sitting in a coffee shop together after class.

1 Jack I think I'm going to be a vegetarian.
2 Diane What makes you say that?
3 Jack Well, I was reading an interview with Paris Hilton the other day, and she said that she doesn't think that human beings evolved to eat meat. Paris Hilton hangs out with a lot of famous actors, and a lot of famous actors are vegetarians. If she says that humans did not evolve to eat meat then I think it's probably true. That's why I'm going vegetarian.
4 Diane Okay, you know Paris Hilton is not in any way scientifically qualified to speak on the particulars of human evolution right?
5 Jack I like Paris though. She seems like she'd be nice.

Fred is supposed to pick Ginger up for a date. A little before the appointed time, Fred calls Ginger on the phone and the following conversation takes place.

1 Fred My car won't start.
2 Ginger Is it turning over?
3 Fred No, I just hear a clicking noise.
4 Ginger Did you leave the lights on in the car when you got home last night?
5 Fred I was looking at the road map, and I did have the interior lights on. I can’t remember if I turned them off.
6 Ginger And nothing else is wrong with the car?
7 Fred Nope. It's been running fine.
8 Ginger How old is the battery?
9 Fred I've had the car for seven years, so seven years.
10 Ginger Okay. You're hearing a clicking noise when you turn the key. You might have left the interior lights on. The car has been running fine until now; but your battery's really old. All of this makes me positive that the most likely cause of the car's not starting is the battery. I'll be over with my jumper cables in fifteen minutes.
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