PHL 235 01 Fall 2013 Test One


1. This test will be held in class at the start of class on Wednesday, 25 February, 2015. The test period will begin at 10:30 and end at 11:45 AM or whenever the last person present finishes. Do NOT be late! No late or make-tests will be scheduled. There will be no exceptions.

2. The blue book you provided will be returned to you with appropriate identification. You may use a pencil or blue or black pen to complete the test. No notes, books, handouts, dictionaries, electronic devices, or any other materials of any kind may be used.

3. Do not write your name anywhere on your test. Please also “double-space” your answers, and write only on the front of the pages. (Don’t worry—you will have plenty of space.)

4. Your test answers should be your own work. Any detectable collaboration will be considered cheating. So will absences from the test longer than five minutes. Cheating will not be tolerated. In keeping with Marygrove College’s academic honesty policy, sanctions up to and including automatic failure of the course may be applied in cases of cheating.

5. This is NOT a research assignment. You are NOT to use outside sources. Usage of verbatim quotations from the textbook and paraphrasing of the textbook are to be used sparingly and kept under three lines per occurrence. If you must use quotations, know that all verbatim quotations must be enclosed in quotation marks. All such quotations, and any paraphrasing of material from the text, must be followed by an appropriate citation. The following simplified format may be used: ([author’s name], [page number from which the text is taken]). The following is an example of the minimally acceptable citation format:

For a verbatim quotation: “Of all the things which wisdom acquires to produce the blessedness of the complete life, far the greatest is the possession of friendship.” (Cahn & Markie, p. 183)

For paraphrasing: Epictetus says that friendship is the most important thing for a blessed life. (Cahn & Markie p. 183)

Failure to cite quoted or paraphrased works properly is plagiarism—the misrepresentation of other’s work as one’s own. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. In keeping with Marygrove College’s academic honesty policy, the first instance of plagiarism will merit a grade of “0” on the test and the notification of the student’s advisor. Repeated offenses will be met with more serious sanctions. Lecture material does not need to be followed by a citation.

6. Be sure that you address all parts of the question. Be efficient, clear, and thorough in your writing. Keep in mind that this is a test of your understanding of the material, not a solicitation of a manifesto of your own personal philosophy. Stay focused on simply and directly answering the questions.

7. Your answers should be substantive and your points should be supported with evidence (from the text), lecture material and independent argument. All technical philosophical terms (e.g. ‘psychological continuity’, ‘substance’, etc.) should be defined. Charts, graphs, and drawings should not be used. Your answer must be correct and clear. It need not be rhetorically pleasing. That said, basic issues such as grammar, spelling, and structure will all count towards your grade. Clear writing and clear thinking go hand in hand.

8. If you have any questions feel free to e-mail me at any time. I do not give provisional grades to test answers but I will answer questions about the test insofar as I can without conferring an unfair advantage on anyone.


On the day of the exam the instructor will return your blue book to you with your student number on the outside cover. On the day of the test one of the questions below will be allotted to each student via a random procedure. This means that you have an equal chance of getting any one of the four questions below. The question assigned to you will truly be the luck of the draw. Not even the instructor will know which of the questions you will answer before the day of the test. You will be responsible for answering ONLY the question assigned to you. Do NOT answer the others. No extra credit of any kind will be given.

Below are the questions. These questions will not be altered in any way prior to the exam. They will occur exactly as they are written here. READ EACH QUESTION VERY CAREFULLY and break it into its composite parts before attempting to answer.

Alex follows all the laws of the city in which he lives. He pays his taxes and he votes in every election. Not only has Alex has never broken any laws of any kind, he has never even turned in a library book late. Despite all this, Alex is an incredible coward, incapable of standing up for himself or for anyone else. Additionally, he never gives to charity. Instead Alex spends his money in bars getting drunk on expensive tequila (though one those nights he does, at least have a cab take him home in order to avoid breaking the laws against public intoxication and drunk driving).

Would Aristotle say that Alex is a good citizen? Would Aristotle say that Alex is a good person? (Hint: It may help you to begin by explaining the differences, if any, between being a good citizen and a good person according to Aristotle's framework.) Support your answers with clear, well-reasoned arguments.

Briana is reading the same sections of Machiavelli's works as you have read, and answering the same set of questions. This is her answer to question number 4 on page 54.

Machiavelli thinks that the two qualities a founder of a city must have are ruthlessness and ambition. If a city is known in history as remarkable, it must be because the founders were ambitious enough to found a city where nothing was before, and ruthless enough to use intimidation, violence, or trickery to force the people into to building it.

Poor Briana clearly has made a number of errors here. Set things right by explaining exactly what her mistakes are. Don't merely list them! Explain why they are mistakes. To wrap up your answer, give a correct answer to question 4 on page 54 of the text.


Consider the following argument:

1. If there had been no industrial revolution then there would not have been the massive urbanization that took place in England in the 19th century.
2. If 19th Century English urbanization had not happened, then Utilitarian moral theory and Marx's political philosophy would not have developed.
3. THEREFORE, it follows that If the industrial revolution had not happened, then neither of two of the main philosophical developments of the 19th Century, Utilitarianism and Marxism, would have developed.

Apply the method described in the flow chart handout we use in class to give and support a full evaluation of this argument.


Consider what you know from our class readings and videos about the urbanization that followed the industrial revolution. In what ways would London, Manchester and other "great towns" of the sort described by Engels fit Plato's description of the "feverish city" in the Republic? In what ways (if any) would they be different from the "feverish city"? Support your answer with clear, well-reasoned argumentation based on our readings and videos.

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