PHL 201 01 Winter 2014 Test Two


1. This test will be held in class at the start of class on Wednesday, 30 April, 2014. The test period will begin at 10:30 and end at 11:45 AM or whenever the last person present finishes. Do NOT be late! No late or make-tests will be scheduled. There will be no exceptions.

2. The blue book you provided will be returned to you with appropriate identification. You may use a pencil or blue or black pen to complete the test. No notes, books, handouts, dictionaries, electronic devices, or any other materials of any kind may be used.

3. Do not write your name anywhere on your test. Please also “double-space” your answers, and write only on the front of the pages. (Don’t worry—you will have plenty of space.)

4. Your test answers should be your own work. Any detectable collaboration will be considered cheating. So will absences from the test longer than five minutes. Cheating will not be tolerated. In keeping with Marygrove College’s academic honesty policy, sanctions up to and including automatic failure of the course may be applied in cases of cheating.

5. This is NOT a research assignment. You are NOT to use outside sources. Usage of verbatim quotations from the textbook and paraphrasing of the textbook are to be used sparingly and kept under three lines per occurrence. If you must use quotations, know that all verbatim quotations must be enclosed in quotation marks. All such quotations, and any paraphrasing of material from the text, must be followed by an appropriate citation. The following simplified format may be used: ([author’s name], [page number from which the text is taken]). The following is an example of the minimally acceptable citation format:

For a verbatim quotation: “Of all the things which wisdom acquires to produce the blessedness of the complete life, far the greatest is the possession of friendship.” (Cahn & Markie, p. 183)

For paraphrasing: Epictetus says that friendship is the most important thing for a blessed life. (Cahn & Markie p. 183)

Failure to cite quoted or paraphrased works properly is plagiarism—the misrepresentation of other’s work as one’s own. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. In keeping with Marygrove College’s academic honesty policy, the first instance of plagiarism will merit a grade of “0” on the test and the notification of the student’s advisor. Repeated offenses will be met with more serious sanctions. Lecture material does not need to be followed by a citation.

6. Be sure that you address all parts of the question. Be efficient, clear, and thorough in your writing. Keep in mind that this is a test of your understanding of the material, not a solicitation of a manifesto of your own personal philosophy. Stay focused on simply and directly answering the questions.

7. Your answers should be substantive and your points should be supported with evidence (from the text), lecture material and independent argument. All technical philosophical terms (e.g. ‘psychological continuity’, ‘substance’, etc.) should be defined. Charts, graphs, and drawings should not be used. Your answer must be correct and clear. It need not be rhetorically pleasing. That said, basic issues such as grammar, spelling, and structure will all count towards your grade. Clear writing and clear thinking go hand in hand.

8. If you have any questions feel free to e-mail me at any time. I do not give provisional grades to test answers but I will answer questions about the test insofar as I can without conferring an unfair advantage on anyone.


On the day of the exam the instructor will return your blue book to you with your student number on the outside cover. On the day of the test one of the questions below will be allotted to each student via a random procedure. This means that you have an equal chance of getting any one of the four questions below. The question assigned to you will truly be the luck of the draw. Not even the instructor will know which of the questions you will answer before the day of the test. You will be responsible for answering ONLY the question assigned to you. Do NOT answer the others. No extra credit of any kind will be given.

Below are the questions. These questions will not be altered in any way prior to the exam. They will occur exactly as they are written here. READ EACH QUESTION VERY CAREFULLY and break it into its composite parts before attempting to answer.

Alex is working on understanding Aristotle's fourfold model of causation. He is working on the model as it applies to natural things, and has the following preliminary "map" of how the model would apply to a horse:

Material Cause: horse-matter
Formal Cause: the horse breeder
Efficient Cause: to run in races
Final Cause: ???

Alex has, of course, made a number of mistakes. Explain each type of Aristotelian cause in detail, and then correct Alex's "map" so that it accurately reflects how each type of cause applies to the example of a horse.

Chris and Britt are studying for their exam on Ancient Greek philosophy. The two are discussing Epicurus' views on pleasure. Britt is trying to convince Chris that Epicurus was a hedonist: someone who believed that the only good in life is basic physical pleasure of the sort derived from eating chocolate or taking a hot, relaxing bath. Britt is certain this is wrong, and that Epicurus really believed that the pleasures that matter are those related to wisdom. Explain Epicurus' real views on pleasure and the role of pleasure in human life. Which one, Chris or Britt, is closer to being right?

Dana believes that God makes all human knowledge possible by supplying human minds with the light of understanding. The only way people have any knowledge of any kind, she thinks, is through divine illumination. Is her view of God's role in human knowledge the same as the view held by Thomas Aquinas? Defend your answer by explaining Aquinas' view in detail and showing how it does or doesn't match Dana's account.

Elia's English professor makes the students memorize important poems. In class, she always lectures, and never does any other kind of class. On her tests, she makes the students repeat the explanations of the poems she herself has given in lecture. Only those who repeat her own explanations back to her in perfect detail get A's. Montaigne would not approve of Elia's English professor's mode of instruction. What problems would he find with her instructional methods? What instructional methods would he suggest instead?

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