Phl 156 Wiki

Indian Philosophy

Orthodox Schools

Advaita Vedanta

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Samkhya-Yoga

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Nyaya-Vaisesika

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Unorthodox Schools

Buddhism

Theravada (early) Buddhism

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Mahayana Buddhism

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Madhyamika Buddhism

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Jainism

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Caravaka

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Chinese Philosophy

Early Confucianism

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Kongzi

Many claim him to be the founder of Confucian though he never claimed this himself; Kongzi opened the door to some of the greatest philosophies in China. Kongzi Confucius had the right idea on how mankind should live their daily lives. He often refers to that time period as the golden age, and went about ways to introduce it to society. Kongzi strongly believed in reflection and education because learning without reflection is a waste of time. This learning and reflection starts in the home were children are thought to love and respect their parents unconditionally in order to learn to better respect higher authority figures in their near future. Although these ideals did not kick off in his time period it later added other philosopher in the path to discovering how mankind should live for the betterment of society.
Upon Kongzi death more philosophers took a look at his ideals and tried to reflect upon ways on he how mankind can better live in society. Take Mozi for example he felt that if everyone lived equally everyone would be happy, were as Yang Zhu believed that you truly refine oneself at home with family truly shapes human nature. These ideals where great, but didn’t reflect what Kongzi was trying to put across to the readers. Back then Kongzi know that people make mistakes, “one must not force their views on other for it burdens them,” a scripture token from the Odes. There in lives the dilemma what is the right way to practice Confucian. Here when Mengzi steps in to open up the structured path.

Mengzi

Mengzi state,” though Mohists ways are feasible it ask of too much from its followers.” Everyone cannot be treated equally on the same level, people have different view and opinions about life therefore value things differently. Yang Zhu definition of human nature was to go after only what you desire therein lays your happiness. Mengzi thought that will going after your desire is a good idea what to you strive for once they are fulfilled. This also left much room for one to ponder this expectation. To solve all of this, Mengzi introduced a new way of thinking to approach humane actions. He proposed the sprout theory.
According to the (sprout theory) all people are naturally good whereas there is a sprout of goodness growing inside you that need to natured and trained to remain in its good nature in otherworld’s you natural do this. He argues this with the give-away action theory by stating, “If a child where to fall in a well you would immediately act to save that child thus realizing the good inside you.” This is action of your xin (heart) the nature in heart is therefore naturally good. Although Mengzi theory was a step in the right direction towards the way of Confucian many people did not believe that people are naturally good, one think who acts this ideal directly is Xunzi.

Xunzi

Xunzi also a Confucian philosopher whom also believe in the five relationships to moral cultivation like Kongzi and Mengzi, Xunzi believed that human nature is truly evil; it only through proper education that good is learned. Not too many people like the idea that human nature was truly evil people much like Wang Xiangian a Neo-Confucian thinker of the 19th and 20th century had this to say about Xunzi theory, “I feel said for Xunzi to have lived in an age of chaos during the Thang Dynasty, because I feel it may hindered his thoughts about human nature.”
We can see how Xunzi theory may conflicted a lot of thinkers because many people did not necessarily think human nature was evil, nor did they think it was good which left a lot of Xunzi and Mengzi followers believing that their ideas where the same. Although Xunzi and Mengzi ideals where similar because they were both Confucian, they had very different approaches to get to their theories. It took someone of Confucian who could see the direction where both thinkers were going when it came to proper human self-cultivations, and that someone was Kong Zhongni.

Kong Zhongni

Confucian philosopher whom helped bridge the gap between Confucian thinkers Mengzi and Xunzi by saying there is neither good nor evil because human nature can sway either way when it comes to matters of the heart. Kong understood these philosopher’s ideas and development a new practice of Confucianism that everyone could follow and follows till this day.

Content by Dinah Aremo, PHL 156 Honors Project, Fall 2009

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Taoism

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Chinese Buddhism

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Neo-Confucianism

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Japanese Philosophy

Zen Buddhism

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Bushido

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